[104] With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913. Les Perspectives pour l'économie mondiale étudient les tendances de l’économie dans le monde et leur impact sur les pays en développement. (source: Islamic Political Culture, Democracy, and Human Rights: A Comparative Study, p. 93 Daniel E. Price – 1999, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 16:17. The government has also made an attempt at "Saudizing" the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.[392]. [297] Apart from China, the UN nuclear watchdog, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also assisting Saudi’s nuclear ambition. "[306] The Saudi government denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism. [141] Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. [197] Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure. Ressources en eau renouvelables totales par habitant (m3/hab/an), Cité par R. Hoyland, Seeing islam as others saw it, Princeton 1996 ; H. S. H. Behbehani, " Arab-chinese military encounters : two cases studies 715-751" , ARAM 1/1989, Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters), 85,000-Year-Old Finger Bone May Rewrite the Story of Human Migration Out of Africa, Indigenous Arabs are descendants of the earliest split from ancient Eurasian populations, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/aid/north_africa_mid_east/yemen_fr.html, http://www.planetfinance.org/FR/popup_reference.php?id=7, http://www.yemennetwork.org/userfiles/files/Yemen%20Microfinance%20Law(1).pdf, Scan en haute définition d'une vieille carte de l'Arabie, « La Côte d'Arabie, la mer Rouge, la Mer de Perse et le Golfe Persique de Basora après les Detroits d'Ormuz vers l'Inde, le Gujarat et le Cap Comorín » es un mapa de 1707 muestra la Pennisula árabe de la biblioteca Digital Mundial, Géopolitique en mer Méditerranée orientale, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arabie&oldid=176675508, Page avec coordonnées différentes sur Wikidata, Article géolocalisé aux Émirats arabes unis, Article avec une section vide ou incomplète, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in Western Asia, the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria), the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. [318] Since 1985, the UK has supplied military aircraft—notably the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft—and other equipment as part of the long-term Al-Yamamah arms deal estimated to have been worth £43 billion by 2006 and thought to be worth a further £40 billion. Ils sont donc pour l'essentiel musulmans de rite sunnite issus pour la plupart de l'école hanafite. Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence (or fiqh) found in pre-modern texts[192] and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qur'an and hadith. Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. Faifi is spoken by about 50,000. Initial analysis of the discovery concluded that the eastern province of Saudi Arabia was the homeland of the earliest settlers of Mesopotamia, and by extension, the likely origin of the Sumerians. [189] Although the Al ash-Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished in recent decades,[190] they still hold the most important religious posts and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage. The laws also grant the women the eligibility for the guardianship of minor children. [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], The kingdom spends 8% of its GDP on the military (highest in the world after Oman)[39], which places it as the world's third biggest military spender behind the United States and China[40], and the world's largest arms importer from 2015 to 2019, receiving half of all the US arms exports to the Middle East. On dénombre aussi des minorités religieuses non musulmanes, principalement composées d'étrangers, comme les bouddhistes, les hindous, les chrétiens[10] et les juifs (notamment les arabes de confession juive du Yémen). The Saudi Arabia national football team is considered as one of Asia's most successful national teams, having reached a joint record 6 AFC Asian Cup finals, winning three of those finals (1984, 1988, and 1996) and having qualified for the World Cup four consecutive times ever since debuting at the 1994 tournament. Challenges to the Saudi economy include halting or reversing the decline in per-capita income, improving education to prepare youth for the workforce and providing them with employment, diversifying the economy, stimulating the private sector and housing construction, and diminishing corruption and inequality. ’Arabie Saoudite est le plus grand pays de la pénin- sule arabique avec une superficie totale de 2 149690 km 2. "[292][293], In 2017, as part of its nuclear power program, Saudi Arabia planned to extract uranium domestically, taking a step towards self-sufficiency in producing nuclear fuel. Scuba diving, windsurfing, sailing and basketball (which is played by both men and women) are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the 1999 Asian Championship. [532][533] At the same time, David Guetta declared that "There is obviously a very big effort in Saudi to open to music and to artists". Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. [401], Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain. [240] On 20 May 2017, President Donald Trump and King Salman signed a series of letters of intent for Saudi Arabia to purchase arms from the United States totaling US$110 billion immediately,[241] and $350 billion over 10 years. L'Arabie centrale était l'emplacement du royaume de Kindah aux IVe, Ve et au début du VIe siècle après J.-C. L'Arabie orientale abritait la civilisation de Dilmun. [518], In 2017, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman promised to return Saudi Arabia to the "moderate Islam" of the era before the 1979 Iranian revolution. He was succeeded by his brother, King Fahd, who added the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name in 1986 in response to considerable fundamentalist pressure to avoid use of "majesty" in association with anything except God. [49][220] In 1973, Saudi Arabia and other Arab nations imposed an oil embargo against the United States, United Kingdom, Japan and other Western nations which supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War of October 1973. This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities (Arabic: أمانة‎; amanah) headed by mayors (Arabic: أمين‎; amin). Aménagement des zones protégées au royaume d'Arabie saoudite. [531], Developments in the arts in 2018 included Saudi Arabia's debut appearances at the Cannes Film Festival and the Venice Biennale. [598] As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. This was after he performed a concert attended by more than 10,000 people in the heritage site north-west of Riyadh. "[256][257] In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Saudi Arabia, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang region. [311] In addition, there is an Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service. The strategy is being viewed as a method of sportswashing following the chaos spread across Yemen since 4 years. In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F). However, the unexpected impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the economy, along with Saudi Arabia's poor human rights records, laid unforeseen challenges before the development plans of the Kingdom, where some of the programs under ‘Vision 2030’ were also expected to be affected. [23][24] Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca) and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam. As of 2016, in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. [323] In 2016, the European Parliament decided to temporarily impose an arms embargo against Saudi Arabia, as a result of the Yemen civilian population's suffering from the conflict with Saudi Arabia. Human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women (see Women below), capital punishment for homosexuality,[333] religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police (see Religion below). [122] From the 1990s, signs of discontent continued and included, in 2003 and 2004, a series of bombings and armed violence in Riyadh, Jeddah, Yanbu and Khobar. In Riyadh the following month King Salman met the head of the Vatican's Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. [125], Since 2011, Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own Arab Spring protests. Known records from Uruk refer to a place called Dilmun, associated in several occasions with copper and in later period it was a source of imported woods in southern Mesopotamia. Annual rainfall is extremely low. [578], In April 2018, the first public cinema opened in Saudi Arabia after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2,000 screens running by 2030. Superficie des terres couvertes de forêts. [448] According to Pew Research Center there are 390,000 Hindus in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers. 98 p. 100 du territoire est désertique ou semi-désertique. [554] With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased's estate must be left to the Qur'anic heirs[555] and generally, female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs. [133], Since 2001, Saudi Arabia has engaged in widespread internet censorship. Il existe un « Global Islamic Microfinance Forum » dont la troisième édition est prévue pour octobre 2013[13].La microfinance a pour but de permettre l'accès à des services financiers adaptés (crédits, épargne, assurance, transferts de fonds...) aux exclus bancaires dans le but de développer une activité génératrice de revenus. [360], The rich diversity is in part due to the 2,000 km (1,240 mi) of coral reef extending along its coastline; these fringing reefs are 5000–7000 years old and are largely formed of stony acropora and porites corals. The 334-square kilometre city will include a safari and a Six Flags theme park. [317], The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since 1965. Le secteur tertiaire est dominé par les institutions financières et techniques qui sont surtout au service de l'industrie des hydrocarbures. Plus de 5.800 lieux géographiques d'Arabie Saoudite sont localisables sur la carte. Le sultanat d'Oman est également un pays où il existe une certaine pauvreté, bien que les données chiffrées soient rares. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority[188] thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. The Nabataeans ruled large portions of north Arabia until their domain was annexed by the Roman Empire. Selon les estimations, la population de l'Arabie s'élevait à 77 983 936 habitants en 2008[9]. [178] In addition, they have had a major role in the judicial and education systems[179] and a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals. [546], Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police, female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz, the son of the late King Fahad, are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code. In 1991, Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait. [577], In March 2018, a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits. [321] Saudi Arabia received 41 percent of UK arms exports in 2010–14. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs. The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate. [295] On 19 August 2020, Congressional Democrats asked the US secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, to provide information about China’s alleged role in building a uranium processing facility in Saudi Arabia. Most trials are held in secret. Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 63%[378] of budget revenues and 67%[379] of export earnings come from the oil industry. Mohammed Al-Jadaan said that the country will take “painful” measures and keep all options open to deal with the impact. [70], At the end of the 7th century BC, an emerging kingdom appeared on the historical theater of north-western Arabia. [274], In March 2015, Sweden scrapped an arms deal with Saudi Arabia, marking an end to a decade-old defense agreement with the kingdom. [557] As of 2015[update], Saudi women constitute 13% of the country's native workforce despite being 51% of all university graduates. [73], Lihyan was a powerful and highly organized ancient Arabian kingdom that played a vital cultural and economic role in the north-western region of the Arabian Peninsula. [456] There are around 100,000 Westerners in Saudi Arabia, most of whom live in compounds or gated communities. ", "Welcome to the Saudi Arabia vs. Canada Troll War", "Turkey seeks answers from Saudi Arabia on missing journalist", "Saudi Arabia and U.S. [610] Infant mortality in 2018 was 6 per 1,000. [268], Saudi Arabia, together with Qatar and Turkey, openly supported the Army of Conquest,[269] an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly included an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al-Sham. La superficie totale de la Arabie saoudite. Proponents call the movement "Salafism",[444] and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions. [565] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. ", "These may be the world's first images of dogsand they're wearing leashes", The World around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East, The political map of Arabia and the Middle East in the third century AD revealed by a Sabaean inscription, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, "History of Saudi Arabia. [177] The preferred ulema are of the Salafi persuasion. Royaume d'Arabie Saoudite (SA) Chef de l'État et du gouvernement: Le roi Salman ben Abdelaziz al-Saoud (depuis le 23 janvier 2015) Capitale: Riyad: Langue officielle: arabe: Unité monétaire: rial saoudien (SAR) Population: 34 254 000 (estim. La devise national du pays de Arabie saoudite est Rial et le code devise SAR. [592] Also, the QS World University Rankings has ranked 19 Saudi universities among the top 100 Arab institutions, on its 13th edition. Le reste de l'année subit une chaleur torride. Dans les espaces ruraux, on trouve un certain nombre d'activités traditionnelles, comme la conception des tapis. 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The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog (700,000), Rohingya (400,000), Urdu (380,000), Egyptian Arabic (300,000), and Indonesian (250,000). [156][158] When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on 21 October 2011, King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince. With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. Elle est ento… [464], On 13 August 2020, Human Rights Watch reported dozens of Euthopian migrants who had been forcibly expelled by Houthi forces, under the pretext of COVID-19 measures, were killed and detained by Saudi border guards. Les civilisations d'Arabie du Sud comprennent le royaume de Saba, le royaume himyarite, le royaume d'Awsân et le royaume de Ma'īn. [259] These fears were reflected in comments of King Abdullah,[183] who privately urged the United States to attack Iran and "cut off the head of the snake". [98], The first "Saudi state" established in 1744 in the area around Riyadh, rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia,[99] sacking Karbala in 1802 and capturing Mecca in 1803, but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha. Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. [205][206][207] The 345 reported executions between 2007 and 2010 were all carried out by public beheading. In 2018 the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world. [80], After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. [147] Saudi Arabia is unique among modern Muslim states in that Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent, giving judges the power to use independent legal reasoning to make a decision. Arabie Saoudite - Géographie physique . A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. The first concerts in Riyadh for 25 years took place the following year. [546] The World Economic Forum 2010 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 129th out of 134 countries for gender parity. [265], On 25 March 2015, Saudi Arabia, spearheading a coalition of Sunni Muslim states,[266] started a military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings. - Les appels téléphoniques via Whatsapp peuvent parfois être bloqués. Average summer temperatures are around 45 °C (113 °F), but can be as high as 54 °C (129 °F). [285] The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. [300], The relations with the U.S. became strained following 9/11 terror attacks. [609], Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of 74.99 years (73.79 for males and 76.61 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2018 from the World Bank. Cette péninsule de près de deux millions et demi de kilomètres carrés est dominée par un immense désert baptisé Rub al-Khali. Turkish officials are highly skeptical of Khashoggi being murdered inside the consulate; this has strained the already suffering Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations. As of October 2018, Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. [537][538][539] Until 2018 women were not permitted in sport stadiums. [200] Families of someone unlawfully killed can choose between demanding the death penalty or granting clemency in return for a payment of diyya (blood money), by the perpetrator. Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse, Arabian camel, sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc. Son territoire, large- ment couvert par le désert du Rub al Khali, est aussi l’un des pays les plus arides de la planète. Superficie : 1 960 582 km² . The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible. [80], On 29 January 2011, hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing 11 people. Il ne faut pas oublier les forts écarts de revenus existant dans cette région, avec un clivage net entre ceux qui bénéficient directement des revenus du pétrole et une tranche de la population qui évolue dans une forte pauvreté. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction. [217] It plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization. [405] The Al Jouf region has millions of olive trees and the expected number is expected to go up to 20 million trees soon. [195] The Sharia court system constitutes the basic judiciary of Saudi Arabia and its judges (qadi) and lawyers form part of the ulema, the country's Islamic scholars. Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines. Les plus hautes parties se trouvent le long des bords ouest et sud, les plus basses à l’est. [48], Following the amalgamation of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʿArabīyah as-Saʿūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz bin Saud. [64], Climatic change and the onset of aridity may have brought about the end of this phase of settlement, as little archaeological evidence exists from the succeeding millennium. [citation needed] At the same time, the government became increasingly wasteful and extravagant. However, the large influx of foreign workers in Saudi Arabia in the oil industry increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. By the 1950s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing.
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